Active Ingredient: Promethazine
All you need to know about Phenergan
Phenergan, also known as Promethazine, is a drug that is used to treat and prevent nausea and vomiting that is related to specific body conditions. The drug is used before and after surgery. It can also be used to treat allergic reactions like skin rashes, running nose, and skin itching. The drug is used to cause a patient to fall asleep and feel relaxed before and after surgery.
It can be used to help certain pain relievers to work better. An excellent example of these pain relievers is the meperidine. It is also used to treat a running nose for patients suffering from common cold. Promethazine is a type of antihistamine, and its work is to inhibit histamine from the body from having any reaction in the body. It also acts on the brain directly by affecting certain body substances such as acetylcholine.
The drug is not administered to children under the age of six and has been proven to be unsafe. You can only use it on children under instructions from a qualified physician. When using the drug, it is advisable to follow the right dosage.
The drug has 25mg or 12.5 mg of promethazine HCl with ascobyl palmitate in it. Other ingredients in the drug include white wax, hard fat, silicon dioxide, and glyceryl monostearate. Other ingredients include the Phenergan suppositories, also known as Promethazine HCL. The Promethazine HCL is a racemic compound with a molecular weight of 320.88.
It is a phenothiazine product and is made chemically as 10H -Phenothiazine, 10 — ethanamine, monohydrochloride (+) and trimethyl -. The drug appears as a white to faded yellow, it is odorless, crystalline and can quickly oxidize to form a blue color when exposed to air for some time. The drug is soluble in both water and alcohol.
What is Phenergan used for
The drug is used to treat allergies and travel sickness. It makes the patients drowsy and often falls asleep. The uses are discussed below:
When the body produces Histamine- a chemical substance produced by the body for defense, it causes the symptoms of an allergic reaction. Symptoms for an allergic reaction include a running nose, body rashes, and skin itching, especially around the nose, eye, and throat region. The drug prevents the histamine from reacting with body chemicals, thus preventing the symptoms of the allergic reaction.
Preventing travel sickness and nausea
The drug blocks receptors that produce histamine in the part of the brain known as vomit center. It activates this part of the brain, causing a vomiting reflex. It stops the vomiting center from being activated.
Used for sleep
The Phenergan drug is used for sedating the brain hence making you feel sleepy. It can be used to help you fall asleep.
Other notable uses of the Phenergan Drug include:
- Treating coughing and relatable cold symptoms such as running nose.
- Used as a sedative. It is used before and after surgery to help the patient fall asleep or be relaxed.
- It is used to reduce nervousness, agitation, and restlessness.
- Can be used to treat several allergic conditions such as hay fever.
- Can be used to treat migraines
The drug is not to be used by children under or two years. This is because it exposes the children to the risk of having a fatal respiratory depression. Fatalities have been reported of children dying from the use of this drug. A qualified physician should be consulted before administering the drug to kids between age two to six.
The drug has the potential to cause impairment and reduced the physical performance of adults and driving when under its influence may prove to be potentially dangerous. The drug should not be used by patients with respiratory conditions such as asthma and Pneumonia, as this might worsen the situation. Patients who suffer from Asthma and use concomitant medications like anesthetics and narcotics are warned not to use the drug as well. Patients with bone-marrow depression should use the Phenergan with caution.
Clumping together of blood cells and Leukopenia has been reported on patients who use the Phenergan. The drug has been associated with a condition referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome. Some notable symptoms of the Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome include muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, unstable mental status, irregular pulse blood pulse, cardiac dysrhythmias, and general instability. The best way to control and treat the NMS condition is by discontinuing the use of the Phenergan Drug and intensive treatment of the symptoms associated with NMS.
The use of Phenergan drug has been associated with cholestatic Jaundice. The drug should be administered with caution to patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, prostatic hypertrophy, peptic ulcer, and bladder neck obstruction. The drug should not be administered to pregnant and lactating women only when it’s most necessary. When used by a pregnant woman two weeks before birth, it might cause platelet aggregation in newborns.
The drug is known to cause confusion and over-sedation among adults. Adult humans should be administered with low doses of the Phenergan drug. Patients who are taking drugs that treat depression, such as the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor are not supposed to take the drug. Persons who are in a coma, unconscious, or suffering from dizziness are not supposed to take the Phenergan drug.
How does Phenergan Work?
The drug is administered by suppository or through oral means. It contains an active ingredient — promethazine hydrochloride, which is a type of medicine. For patients suffering from allergies, the drug inhibits the activation of histamine, which is responsible for allergic reactions in the body. The drugs prevent allergic symptoms like skin itching, running nose, and skin rashes.
The Phenergan prevents nausea and vomiting by inhibiting the part of the brain that brings about the symptoms of nausea. It is a sedating antihistamine because when it’s administered it enters the brain through the bloodstream, thus making the patient sleepy. The drug can be used together with other types of drugs like paracetamol, pholcodine to treat tough colds, coughs, and pain. The drug comes in the form of a tablet, liquid, and capsule.
- Increased and decreased blood pressure
- Can increase the rate of respiratory diseases such as asthma and nasal stuffiness
- Abnormal body movements
- Agitated behavior
- Confusion among the elderly
- Chest discomfort especially for those with high blood pressure
- Respiratory depression
- Dry mouth
How to use the Phenergan drug
The Phenergan should be administered through in liquid and tablet form that is swallowed. The drug should be taken before after meals and at night before the patient sleeps. Children can be given a small dosage under the careful watch of a licensed physician. The drug is white and is supplied while wrapped with silver foils.
Only take the drug when necessary. Avoid overdosing or under dosing of the Phenergan as this can cause terrible side effects. You can take the drug with or without food. Capsules should be swallowed with water and tablets should not be chewed during administration. Do not take two doses at the same time to cover up for a missed or forgotten dose. Overdosing may lead to heart disease, too much sleep, and breathing difficulties.
Promethazine is either administered to patients via injection, oral forms, or rectal absorption. The tablets range from 12.5mg, 25mg, and 50mg. Dosage of the drug is dependent on the conditions to be treated and the physiological conditions of the individual ready to take the drug.
1.The standard allergic dose is:
- Most adults take a single dose of Phenergan tablet which is around 25-75mg per night or around 20mg three times a day.
- Children between six to 12 years are allowed a single dose of 25mg Phenergan at night.
- Infants between two-five years of age take a single dose of 15mg Phenergan at night
2.The standard dosage for nausea and vomiting:
- Adults take a dose of 25g for every six hours, which translates to a maximum dose of 100mg per day.
- Children between six and 12 years take a dose of 10mg for every 6 hours totaling to a maximum dosage of 25mg per day.
- Children between two and six use five mg every 6 hours and have a maximum daily dose of 15 mg.
Promethazine is used beyond the common application as a prophylactic and anti-allergen. It used as a sedative (preoperational, post-operational and obstetrics) and as a cure for motion sickness.
The promethazine is taken to relieve apprehension and induce sleep.
- Adults take up to 75mgs per 24 hours.
- Children with over two years of age take 12-25mg per 24 hours
- Motion sickness
- Adults take a dose of 25mg twice a day.
- For this condition, children take promethazine via rectal absorption at 12.5—25mg twice a day.
Phenergan and pregnancy
Normally a pregnant woman has a three-five percent chance of giving birth to a genetically deformed baby. When using promethazine, these background risks are increased. Some pregnant women tend to use Phenergan to stop their morning sickness, which is a bad idea since they are capable of inducing a miscarriage according to studies. Phenergan may also cause respiratory depression in newborn babies.
When the mother nurses her baby when under Phenergan, the baby will access the drug via milk and exhibit symptoms such as sleepiness and lack of energy. These symptoms are best reported to a health care provider at early stages to prevent further complications. Additionally, promethazine interferes with the lactation process leading to the production of little milk. Specialists should be contacted in such instances.
Like other allergens, Phenergan is more disruptive in the first pregnancy and are more subsided with subsequent pregnancies where some Phenergan are usually introduced to the pregnant woman to reduce the severity of the defects caused by the drug to the fetus, and it’s mothers organ systems. Some of the effects that affect the fetus are;
Dependency on th Phenergan by the fetus
This is the main consideration of all the effects of letting pregnant women use Phenergan as prophylactics. Pregnant women induced with the drug during pregnancy had newborns exhibiting withdrawal symptoms such as restlessness, fever, diarrhea, and excessive crying within their few days after birth.
Neonatal respiratory depressions and universal respiratory depression from the mother
It is essential that the mother takes more cation when they are about to deliver, to avoid cases of respiratory depression and other childbirth complications. Respiratory depression is described when a fully developed breathing system experiences troubles in the function of gaseous exchange. Most infants require resuscitation when delivered by mothers who took Phenergan during their gestation period.
Phenergan’s also cause possible lack of platelet aggregation, which causes excessive bleeding since clots are inhibited from forming. This condition of the newborns is referred to as thrombocytopenia. Newborns with this disorder are put in the ICU for the transfusion of other active platelet sets in the attempt of reducing the severe bleeding.
Phenergan and alcohol
Taking Phenergan while taking other drugs can result in a myriad of effects. It is essential to check with your doctor before going ahead and taking a dose of Phenergan while taking other drugs. It is essential to avoid other Phenergan containing drugs like painkillers, antidepressants, and other sleep- causing drugs when taking the Phenergan.
Phenergan and ethanol compounds can cause uncontrollable movements, seizures, agitations, and severe dizziness that can lead to fainting and coma. The combination of these two drugs should not be used by individuals operating heavy machinery. If you experience dizziness in the wake of using both drugs, it is essential to tell the doctor about all the medications and supplements that you are taking. It is important not to stop taking the medication unless directed by the physician.
Phenergan and their side effects
The Phenergan is likely to disrupt the following body systems
- They disrupt the nervous system inducing the feeling of sedation, which is experienced as dizziness, dryness of mouth, blurred vision, confusion, and other extrapyramidal symptoms like torticollis and unusual protrusion of the tongue.
- Phenergan can cause either the elevation or depreciation of blood pressure.
- They also affect the skin leading to conditions like the skin rash.
- These drugs also affect the blood chemistry of the test subject leading to blood clotting complications like thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis.
- These Phenergan drugs affect the vomiting process acting as both an anaphylactic drug and as a prophylactic drug to achieve the desired process.
- The Phenergan can result to allergic reactions. Allergic reactions are the way the body reacts to foreign proteins in an exaggerated way leading to pimples, sneeze action, or various nasal blockages. The physiology of the body determines the severity of the allergic reaction.
- Chronic trouble with sleeping
- Painful and difficult urination
- Low energy